Thyroid Autoimmunity

Autoimmune thyroid gland disorders are characterized by detection of anti-thyroid antibodies, primarily against thyroglobulin and/or microsomal thyroid antigens. Recently it has been shown that thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the protein responsible for microsomal antigenicity. In addition to chronic thyroiditis, thyroid autoantibodies may be found in other thyroid disorders. These autoantibodies may also occur in apparently normal subjects.

Thyroid microsomal (TPO) autoantibodies occur in sera of most autoimmune thyroid disease patients and predict raised serum TSH levels in random populations. The presence of autoantibody does not imply active tissue destruction. Microsomal (TPO) antibody level correlates with the degree of lymphoid infiltration of the thyroid gland.

Thyroid autoantibody level correlates with the degree of lymphoid infiltration of the thyroid gland. It is also reported that low levels of autoimmune antibodies predict at-risk pregnancy. Furthermore, an EIA test for anti-thyroglobulin and anti-recombinant TPO demonstrated an increase in the rate of spontaneous miscarriage in women who had detectable serum thyroid autoantibodies in their first trimester of pregnancy.

Thyroid autoantibodies are detected by a variety of immunoassays. Common methods are enzyme immunoassay (EIA), indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) techniques.

GenBio offers thyroid autoimmunity screening test in both the ImmunoDOT and the ImmunoWELL test formats.

ImmunoDOT Thyroid Autoimmunity Test simultaneously detects both thyroid microsomal (thyroid peroxidase) autoantibodies and thyroglobulin autoantibodies using highly purified human thyroglobulin devoid of microsomal antigen and recombinant human thyroid peroxidase (microsomal antigen) which does not contain contaminating thyroglobulin and/or mitochondria found in other microsome antigen preparations.

The ImmunoWELL Microsome (TPO recombinant) Antibody Test and the ImmunoWELL Thyroglobulin Antibody Test are enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for screening and detection of autoantibodies against human thyroid peroxidase (microsome) and human thyroglobulin in serum as an aid in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders.